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APPENDIX A.


Decision Rules Used to Designate Urban, Rural, Local and Nonlocal

1. Urban includes all towns with 1990 U.S. Census populations of 2,500 or more.

2. Communities are designated urban even though their populations are under 2,500 if they lie within an "urbanized area." Urbanized areas are defined as all communities and places connected by highway to urban centers with populations of 6,000 or more and lying within a 20-mile radius of the urban center (for cities from 6,000 to 20,000 population) or a 40-mile radius (for cities of more than 20,000). The radius is measured from the center of the city as denoted by the city location point on maps, rather than from the city limits. An exception to the radius rule is that the Anchorage "urbanized area" does not extend north of Knik Arm nor south of Turnagain Arm.

The cities of 6,000 to 20,000 population are Ketchikan, Kenai, Kodiak and Sitka. The cities above 20,000 are Anchorage, Fairbanks and Juneau.

Table 1 presents annual counts of year-end permits held by each urban community split into two groups to show the sensitivity of the urban/rural threshold level. If the threshold level were set at a population of 4,000 people instead of 2,500 then the first group of communities would be classified as rural resulting in an additional 1,167 rural permit holders at year-end 1993.

Local/Nonlocal

1. On the coast, local/non-local boundaries are based on Fish and Game salmon management areas. Exceptions include communities which have been within more than one Fish and Game management area as a result of the movement of Fish and Game boundaries since 1975. These communities have been made local to both areas (see below). In addition, Cape Yakataga and Port Heiden are "overlap" areas that can contain more than one assigned permit and management area designation. Residents of these two areas will be local for both relevant overlap areas. Lastly, residences in both Southeast and Yakutat are designated local to the hand and power troll fisheries.

              Communities Local to More Than One Alaska Department of Fish
                                                     and Game Management Area

               Community              Local Management Areas
               Port Heiden            Bristol Bay/ Peninsula Aleutians
               Cape Newenham          Bristol Bay/ Kuskokwim
               Cape Yakataga          Prince William Sound/ Yakutat
               Cape Romanzof          Kuskokwim/ Lower Yukon
               Chevak                 Kuskokwim/ Lower Yukon
               Hooper Bay             Kuskokwim/ Lower Yukon
               Igiak                  Kuskokwim/ Lower Yukon
               Scammon Bay            Kuskokwim/ Lower Yukon                    Community                    Local Management Areas
               St. Michael            Lower Yukon/ Norton Sound
               Stebbins               Lower Yukon/ Norton Sound

2. The Upper and Lower Yukon and Kuskokwim River fishery areas are based on immediate river drainages. The Lower Yukon area extends up the Yukon River to just above Holy Cross. The Upper Yukon "local" area extends up the Koyukuk tributary as far as Huslia, the Chandalar as far as Venetie and the Tanana to Delta Junction, 30 miles beyond the upper limits of commercial fishing on that river. The Kuskokwim local area extends 30 miles upriver beyond the limit of commercial fishing on that river and includes the Stony River tributary as far as Lime Village and the Holitna River as far as Kasheglok.

3. The Bristol Bay area extends inland up the Nushagak River and includes the entire Tikchik Lake system as well as Lake Iliamna and Lake Clark.

4. The Cook Inlet local area includes all but the eastern edge of the Anchorage Borough. The line dividing the Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound ADF&G regulatory areas is extended inland directly north. That is, the line runs from Cape Fairfield at 14850'W, north to 6132'N (just north of Bodenburg Butte and south of Palmer) and thence west to 15030'W (to the community of Susitna) and thereafter follows, at a little distance inland, the western shore of Cook Inlet, ending at Cape Douglas.

5. The Prince William Sound area extends up the Copper River to the confluence of the Bremner River. Taking in the census subareas of Prince William Sound and Cordova, but not the Copper River subarea. It excludes the interior Copper River as well as the Edgerton, Richardson and Glenn Highway communities.

6. Localness for the Westward Herring Fisheries is based on ADF&G regulatory districts rather than entire management areas. Herring stocks in Western Alaska are managed and permitted specific to these districts. The local definitions for these fisheries are based on the districts as defined in 1993 ADF&G Commercial Herring Fishing Regulations and extend 30 miles beyond those district boundaries. The districts therein are defined as waters bounded by specified coastline features or latitudes, but the localness includes those population centers on the coast within those boundaries as well as within a 30 mile radius extending inland and beyond the northern and southern district boundaries. Because the Nelson Island and Nunivak Island districts overlap with respect to latitude and because pre-limitation permitting combined these fisheries, they will share the same local communities for the purposes of this study.

        TABLE 1, APPENDIX A.   Permits Held by Alaska Urban Locals and Non-locals by City and Year, 1975-1994.


              Assigned*                                                                                                    Initial
City         Population 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Level  Change
----         ---------- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- -----  ------

SEWARD           2,699    47   45   59   52   55   52   51   58   65   67   69   72   66   64   64   65   56   55   55   50    96    -46
NIKISKI          2,743     0    0    0    1    1    0    0    1    1    9   25   34   42   45   41   43   43   45   43   50     3     47
KOTZEBUE         2,751     0   90  126  133  139  148  151  152  154  154  156  154  151  154  157  153  147  144  142  140   158    -18
PALMER           2,866    22   24   30   32   37   38   39   39   44   44   48   48   54   46   53   54   56   60   63   64    30     34
UNALASKA         3,089     1    1    3    4    3    4    4    4    7    5    6    7    5    2    2    2    3    2    4    4     2      2
PETERSBURG       3,207   140  148  178  191  195  199  210  279  419  418  419  431  439  440  445  455  445  447  459  456   411     45
BARROW           3,469     1    1    1    0    0    0    0    0    1    3    1    1    2    3    4    5    4    4    4    4     2      2
NOME             3,500     3   13   16   19   23   26   33   37   34   33   35   33   35   31   29   36   33   35   30   32    34     -2
HOMER            3,660   103  123  163  179  203  216  214  217  222  233  254  270  289  313  333  353  366  365  362  380   200    180
STERLING         3,802     4    8   10    6    6    8    9    9    9   12   13   15   16   16   13   14   12   10   10   11     8      3
                        ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- -----  -----
     Subtotal            321  453  586  617  662  691  711  796  956  978 1026 1065 1099 1114 1141 1180 1165 1167 1172  1191  944    247

ESTER              147     0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    1    1    5    2    2    2    2    2     0      2
SALCHA             354     0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    1    4    3    3    3    3    4    4    4     0      4
SAXMAN             369     0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    2    2    2    2    1    1    1     0      1
TWO RIVERS         453     0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    1    0    0    0    0    1    2    2     1      1
NORTH POLE       1,456     0    1    3    4    3    3    3    2    4    5   10   13   11   13   13   12   13   12   13   16     4     12
SOLDOTNA         3,482    86  111  129  127  140  149  153  147  157  161  154  155  161  165  154  151  150  149  147  140   107     33
WASILLA          4,028    11    8   12   16   18   22   29   33   33   43   54   59   54   64   66   83   96   87   97   95    21     74
VALDEZ           4,068    23   38   33   31   29   31   35   38   39   37   39   42   39   38   34   34   32   33   31   36    56    -20
ADAK             4,633     0    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0     0      0
BETHEL           4,674    15  148  174  174  176  182  183  190  192  190  196  201  194  191  197  199  200  198  199  202   208     -6
KENAI            6,327   202  216  220  228  222  218  212  234  249  238  239  237  232  231  229  217  229  218  213  210   258    -48
KODIAK           6,365   274  323  358  355  355  346  366  386  387  406  447  445  443  431  428  432  421  436  419  422   466    -44
KETCHIKAN        8,263   203  220  229  229  243  237  232  279  475  457  441  420  417  396  374  358  355  361  355  332   512   -180
WARD COVE        8,263     7   11   14   15   14   13   15   23   47   42   43   46   52   52   54   46   45   46   48   41    43     -2
MOUNT EDGECUMBE  8,588     2    2    2    3    2    3    5   20   47   41   10    4    3    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    40    -40
SITKA            8,588   133  145  162  157  158  163  156  210  358  379  403  417  412  411  425  422  421  422  423  409   361     48
COLLEGE         11,249     4    5    1    1    1    3    3    4    6    5    4    2    3    3    3    3    3    1    1    0     6     -6
AUKE BAY        26,751     6    8   12   13   15   18   20   26   59   61   64   67   61   58   56   58   59   57   57   58    50      8
DOUGLAS         26,751    30   35   37   35   36   35   32   49   83   77   76   77   74   73   71   69   68   68   64   62    75    -13
JUNEAU          26,751   172  176  184  208  215  224  227  328  564  558  507  484  464  454  442  450  425  401  398  395   595   -200
FAIRBANKS       30,843    27   34   43   46   42   59   67   86  102  105  108  114  112  111  101  111  108  109  110  114    84     30
ANCHORAGE      226,338   433  517  554  571  578  600  640  690  717  698  668  655  639  639  631  676  681  682  692  688   621     67
BIRCHWOOD      226,338     1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0     1     -1
BIRD CREEK     226,338     0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    1    1    1    0    1     0      1
CHUGIAK        226,338    16   24   24   19   20   24   28   29   38   37   41   41   35   39   39   36   31   34   35   33    25      8
EAGLE RIVER    226,338    36   38   38   47   48   51   48   43   45   46   45   55   61   56   56   51   47   45   42   44    44      0
EKLUTNA        226,338     1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0     1     -1
ELMENDORF AFB  226,338     0    0    1    1    2    1    0    0    0    0    0    2    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0     0      0
FORT RICHARDSON226,338     0    0    0    0    0    0    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0     0      0
GIRDWOOD       226,338     1    3    3    4    4    5    7    9    7    7    6    7   10   11   13   21   22   22   22   22     1     21
INDIAN         226,338     0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    1    2    2    1    1    1    1     0      1
SPENARD        226,338     0    0    0    0    0    0    0    1    0    1    1    1    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0     0      0
                        ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- -----  -----
     Subtotal           1683 2064 2233 2284 2321 2387 2462 2828 3610 3595 3557 3546 3485 3444 3398 3439 3415 3391 3376  3330 3580   -250

                        ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== =====
=====
  Grand Total           2004 2517 2819 2901 2983 3078 3173 3624 4566 4573 4583 4583 4584 4558 4539 4619 4580 4558 4548 4521  4524     -3




* The 1990 U.S. Census is the source of the assigned city populations.
  Suburban areas have been assigned the city population figures of adjacent urban communities.

Comparison of Urban/Rural and Local/Nonlocal Standards in this Report with those in Dr. Steve Langdon's Permit Transfer Study

Beginning with the 1990 edition of this report, a population of 2,500 has been used in conjunction with 1990 Census figures for the threshold distinguishing urban from rural . This is the same threshold used by Langdon1 although he used 1978 population estimates obtained from the Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs. owns that differ in urban/rural designations from Langdon's work and this study area:

            TOWN                      LANGDON                CFEC
            Cordova                   Urban                  Rural
            Wrangell                  Urban                  Rural
            Girdwood                  Rural                  Urban
            Nikiski                   Rural                  Urban
            Sterling                  Rural                  Urban
            Unalaska                  Rural                  Urban

The designation of local fishery areas in this report differs from the version Langdon used in that substantial areas of interior Alaska are declared "nonlocal" to any fishery on the assumption that these areas are not truly economically or traditionally oriented to commercial coastal or river fisheries. Certain offshore islands of the Bering Sea (St. Lawrence, St. George, St. Paul, St. Matthew and Little Diomede) are also "nonlocal" to any commercial fisheries under limitation.

Langdon designated certain villages in the Kuskokwim delta as "local" to both the Kuskokwim and Bristol Bay fisheries, presumably on the basis of customary fishing patterns and initial permit issuance patterns. While there are advantages to this, it suggests that one ought to deal similarly with comparable situations statewide. For the sake of uniformity, no local designations were made across area borders except as noted above.