15 Overharvest and Underharvest of IFQs and TACs
15.1 TACs and Harvests: 1990 to 1996
Table 15-1 compares actual harvests in each management area with the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) for each year from 1990 through 1996. It shows the difference, in pounds, between the harvest and TAC, and shows the percent of the TAC that was harvested.
The 1990 through 1994 harvest data are based upon halibut fish tickets. The 1995 and 1996 data come from NMFS-RAM IFQ catch databases. Harvest data in the table includes commercial catch in the IFQ fishery and exclude catches made for CDQs. Note that no harvests are shown for Area 4E in 1995 and 1996 because the entire TAC in that area was allocated to CDQs.
Prior to implementation of the IFQ program, "overages," or catches that exceeded the TAC, were common.
Harvests in the IFQ fishery in 1995 and 1996 fell below the IFQ TAC in each area. The percentage of the TAC that was harvested ranged from 67.5% of the TAC in Area 4B in 1995 to 96.5% in Area 3A in 1996. The under harvest decreased from 1995 to 1996 in all areas except Area 4C.
Table 15-1. Comparison of Halibut TACs and Harvest by Management Area, 1990 to 1996
15.2 Total Available IFQs and Actual Harvest by Vessel Category
Table 15-2 compares actual IFQ harvests with available harvests for 1995 and 1996. The data is broken out by area and vessel category.
The data for harvest and available harvest are somewhat different than Table 15-1 and other tables in this report. The harvest data in Table 15-2 consists of both commercial and non-commercial catches, whereas the other tables in this report do not include non- commercial catch. The table also shows the total number of unique persons who recorded landings in each vessel category in the year.
Each year, NMFS-RAM holds out a portion of the TAC in a special "IFQ reserve" pool to cover QS claims in the administrative appeals process. If a person is awarded additional QS during the year through the administrative appeal process, then IFQ is taken from the pounds set aside in the IFQ reserve pool. Consequently, the "current year IFQs" as shown in Table 15-2 consist of the TAC, minus the IFQ in the reserve pool, plus any IFQs that are taken out of the reserve for awards due to administrative appeals.
The IFQ program rules provide for adjustments to a person's current year IFQ assignment due to overharvests or underharvests in the previous year. Deductions can be made for a person's overharvest and a person can carry-over up to 10% of their unharvested IFQ to the following year.1 The total net carry- over from all QS holders is shown in Table 15-2. The carry-over in 1995 is zero because it was the first year of the IFQ program. The "total available IFQs" in the table is the sum of the "current year IFQs" and the previous year carry-over. The carry-over could be positive or negative.
Table 15-2 indicates that during 1995 and 1996 the harvest in nearly all vessel categories was less than the total available IFQ, but the percentage of harvested IFQ increased from 1995 to 1996. Total harvests in most area and vessel categories also increased from 1995 to 1996. Exceptions include the freezer vessel category in Area 3B, the "35 foot or less" category in Areas 4B and 4C, and the "36 to 60 foot" category Area 4C.
There were often large differences between vessel categories in the percentage of harvested IFQ, especially in 1995. For example, in Area 2C in 1995 the percentage of IFQ harvested in the "35 foot or less" vessel category was 69.1%, but was 82.6% in the "greater than 60 foot" category, 88.0% in the freezer category, and 92.2% in "36 to 60 foot" category.
Table 15-2. Available IFQs and IFQs Harvested, By Area and Vessel Category
15.3 Unchanged QS and Unharvested IFQ, 1995 and 1996
During the 1995 and 1996 fishing seasons there were persons who did not transfer, lease, or alter their QS holdings in any way, nor did they fish any portion of their IFQs. Tables 15-3a and 15-3b provide information on the extent of unchanged and un-used QS.
Table 15-3a shows, by area and year, the total amount of QS initially issued in the area. It is compared with the sum of QS holdings that belong to persons who did not alter their holdings by the end of the year. The portion of the "unaltered holdings" is divided into two groups for the year: QS that was used for an IFQ harvest, and QS that was not used for an IFQ harvest. The table also shows the mean amount of QS held by persons in each of the two categories, as well as the IFQ equivalent of the mean QS.
In Tables 15-3a and 15-3b, CDQ catches are not considered for the counts of persons who had halibut harvest. All the persons in Area 4E are shown in the "no harvest" group because the entire TAC in that area was allocated to CDQs.
The amount and percentage of QS that belongs to persons who have not altered their holdings since the beginning of the program should decline each year. The percentage of QS that was held by persons who had not changed their holdings by the end of 1995 ranged from 68.4% in Area 2C to 97.8% in Area 4C. These percentages declined from 1995 to 1996 in all areas and ranged from 50.3% in Area 2C to 86.7% in Area 4D.
Some persons did not alter their QS holdings, nor did they fish in a particular year. The percentage of these persons declined from 1995 to 1996 in all areas except Area 4C. Their average QS holdings were considerably smaller than the average holdings of persons who did fish, and who also had not altered their holdings. This was true in both 1995 and 1996 and in all areas.
Table 15-3b provides similar information on the number of QS holders. It shows the total number of initial QS recipients in each area and year and compares them with the number of QS holders who had not altered their holdings by the end of the year. Initial QS recipients who had not changed their holdings are divided into two groups: the table shows the number and percentage that fished some, or all, of their IFQ during the year and the number and percentage that did not fish any of their IFQ during the year. The table also shows the mean QS and IFQ equivalent holdings for each group of persons.
The percentage of initial QS recipients who had not made changes to their QS holdings dropped from 1995 to 1996 in all areas. The 1995 percentage of initial QS recipients who had not changed their QS holdings and who did not fish ranged from 32.6% in Area 2C to 53.7% in Area 4D. This percentage declined from 1995 to 1996 in all areas.
Table 15-3a. Fished and Unfished QS Owned by Initial Issuees Who Had Not Altered Their QS Holdings by Year-end 1995 and 1996
Table 15-3b. Number of Initial QS Recipients Who Had Not Altered Their Holdings by Year-end 1995 and 1996: Persons With and Without Harvests